The success of the internet is largely due to a set of standards which define the internet protocol (IP). Prior to IP, communication systems required their own domains, each with unique protocols and infrastructure. The key advantage of IP is that it acts as a foundation for multiple communication systems to interoperate over the same domain.
Many of the current systems of automation and control reside on proprietary domains which do not use IP. The installed base of such proprietary domains is often extensive and cannot easily be replaced. Such systems may be connected to the internet, but a gateway and (often bespoke) control software are needed to interface with IP-based IT infrastructure.
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